Applications of laser spectroscopy in space and environmental applications. Laser Spectroscopy for Sensing: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications, Second Edition, examines the latest advances in laser spectroscopy and its use in a diverse range of industrial, medical and environmental applications.
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The book provides an overview of laser spectroscopy at three levels, including the fundamental aspects to consider when planning use of laser spectroscopy to solve a problem from the sample properties to the laser properties to the data analysis , the technical aspects of several spectroscopic techniques, and the fields of applications of such techniques. New sections include key advancements from the field and chapters surrounding Raman Spectroscopy and Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.
His panel covers the fundamentals of laser-induced plasmas, the application of laser spectroscopies such as LIBS, Fluorescence, Raman, FTIR, as fundamental diagnostics as well as sensing techniques for defense, industrial, environmental, biomedical applications and the study of propagation of ultrashort laser pulses for sensing purposes at distances up to the kilometer range. A large part of his research focuses also on the quantification of interferences in spectroscopic signals.
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Multivariate analysis, chemometrics, and machine learning in laser spectroscopy Part II: Laser spectroscopy techniques 6. Presents the fundamentals of laser technology for controlling the spectral and temporal aspects of laser excitation Explores laser spectroscopy techniques, including Raman Spectroscopy and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Considers the spectroscopic analysis of industrial materials and their applications in nuclear research and industry. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:.
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The design and construction of an experimental system for studying two photon spectroscopy processes in atomic rubidium is presented. It is designed to measure absorption and polarization rotation induced by any of the two laser beams and also the visible fluorescence that results from decay of the excited states.
Two home-built diode lasers are used to produce the optical fields that later interact with room temperature rubidium atoms. Using counterpropagating beams allows velocity selection of the groups of atoms that interact with both laser beams.
Blue fluorescence nm that results from decay of the intermediate 6P j states is filtered and then measured with a photomultiplier tube. Absorption and fluorescence spectra provide mutually complementary information about the interaction between the rubidium atoms and the two optical fields.. High-resolution laser spectroscopy free of Doppler broadening has made substantial progress through the study of the interaction between two optical fields and an atomic medium, such as an alkali metal vapor.
The combination of precisely controlled experiments and the development of theoretical models is a key factor in the advance of high-resolution laser spectroscopy.
The agreement between experiment and theory is quite satisfactory under many experimental circumstances Harris et al. For the purposes of this article, one can broadly classify the experiments that use atomic transitions induced by two photons in two groups. There are changes in both absorption and polarization of a probe light beam as it passes through an atomic medium interacting with optical fields.
In the second group of experiments, the light produces excited states in the atoms that can be detected, for instance, by looking at the atomic fluorescence. In these experiments one measures the atomic population in the excited states. This paper is structured as follows. In Section 3 we present the experimental setup. Details about the construction of our diode lasers and the fluorescence detection system are also given.
Examples of experimental spectra obtained with this setup are shown in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are presented in Section To understand the different spectroscopy experiments that are performed in our setup we present an energy level diagram of atomic rubidium in Figure 1. The values of the total angular momenta F and hyperfine structure splittings shown here pertain to 85 Rb, and a similar diagram can be obtained for 87 Rb. After this two-step excitation the atoms in the 5 D j state decay back to the ground state. Detection of the excitation process can be made by measuring changes in the absorption or rotation of the linear polarization of one of the laser beams Flores-Mijangos et al.
Therefore, the total angular momentum F of the initial step in our excitation ladder is well defined. If the frequency of one of the two lasers is fixed, then by scanning the frequency of the second laser one can perform velocity selective Flores-Mijangos et al. In our system we use balanced detection to measure the absorption and polarization of the nm beam used in the first step of the excitation.
We add a photomultiplier tube to the system in order to detect emission of nm photons.
15: Lasers, Laser Spectroscopy, and Photochemistry
These measurements of absorption, polarization and fluorescence are made as functions of the frequency of one of the two lasers, with the frequency of the other laser fixed. In one type of experiment the absorption of the nm laser is measured as its frequency is scanned. One then observes the effect of the passively locked nm light component on top of a broad Doppler absorption well. In this configuration one obtains an electromagnetically induced transparency signal Gea-Banacloche et al. In a second type of experiment, polarization spectroscopy Harris et al. For these two cases detection of the nm fluorescence emission takes place only when the frequency of the lasers resonantly excites the 5 D j state for atoms with a specific velocity, and it appears on top of a flat background.
The experimental system that was constructed is depicted schematically in Figure 2. Two external cavity diode lasers ECDL are used to produce the two-photon transition in an atomic rubidium cell kept at room temperature. The spectrometer is shown in the right hand side box, denoted as B , of Figure 2.
The nm probe beam is linearly polarized, and its polarization direction is controlled with a half waveplate. The nm beam is circularly polarized with a quarter wave plate, and both beams counterpropagate along a commercial rubidium cell Tryad Technology mounted inside an ambient light isolation and magnetic field shielding setup. A photomultiplier tube with a filter and lens assembly see below is used to detect the fluorescence light. A microscope slide at near normal incidence is used to send part of the probe beam into the balanced detection array after it has crossed through the Rb cell.
This setup can therefore register simultaneously both the blue fluorescence detected by the photomultiplier tube and the variations induced in the absorption and direction of polarization of the nm laser component as a result of the interaction of both beams with the atomic medium. Also, a portion of the nm laser is sent to a polarization spectrometer Harris et al. This spectrometer can be used to monitor the frequency of the nm laser when it is scanning, but it can also be used to lock the frequency of this laser when the other laser is scanned.
Both diode lasers are based on the Littrow-mount design of Arnold, Wilson, and Boshier The collimating tube is fixed to a modified mirror mount Newport UP in order to provide mechanical stability for the diode.