Cross-border regions are newly emerging social spaces stretching across national borders. Globalization makes national borders more permeable and leads to a rearrangement of economic and political interactions. This is particularly pronounced within supra-regional blocs featuring specific internal border regimes. The ensuing opportunities are increasingly seized to create border-spanning discourses and institutions.
This is illustrated in the book by a range of experts analyzing cross-border regions in Europe, America, East Asia and Africa. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Condition: New. Language: English. Brand new Book.
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Seller Inventory AAV They framed the issues so as to enable the private sector to enhance competition while allowing sub-national governments, bureaucrats and policy experts to capitalize on, and gain recognition, for efficiency improvements of transportation infrastructure to generate political incentives Ibid. Material — While lobbying efforts achieved a notable degree of success, it was not until national leadership, support and financial resources were secured that the necessary actors for regional cooperation came together to push the cross-border transportation agenda forward.
Of particular significance was the US Transportation Act for the 21 st Century TEA fund — which included the Corridors Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality programs — that provided flexibility in developing multi-modal transportation infrastructure and brought the actors necessary for regional cooperation to the table — e. Clarke With the success of transport development in Cascadia, the US national government later developed the Coordinated Border Infrastructure and National Corridor Planning and Development grant programmes that were secured by annual funding allocations Ibid.
Trailing behind, in the Government of Canada committed to developing improved transportation infrastructure and secure and efficient border services through the Pacific Gateway Strategy. Of central importance for governance capacity pertaining to transportation issues was the existence of workable ideas, potential for reframing issues to incorporate diverse interests within new problem definitions, and the availability of institutional channels for making decisions and directing resources. Cascadia is a product of the interaction of all three levels wherein ideas and identities inform behaviors and objectives, which persist to the establishment of institutions that constitute and are constituted by CBRs Ibid: Thus, the prospects of developing regional governance capacity involve the interaction of these factors Helco ; Blatter This section delineates the insights rendered by the analysis of Cascadia into the nature and implications of Canada-US CBRs, and subsequently discusses future prospects for Canada-US cross-border regional governance capacity and proposes recommendations on how national governments can begin to surmount the challenges and harness opportunities rendered by CBRs.
Global transformations, the ICT revolution, global economic restructuring and supranational institutions e. They are entrenched in international, continental, national and sub-national structures, interact and interrelate with multiple governance arenas, and consequently change and respond to multiple influences Clarke Natural resource and macroeconomic characteristics and socio-cultural values, to varying degrees, shape CBRs.
The analysis of Cascadia underscores the significance of ideational, behavioral and structural conditions, which organically interact at different sites and rates, to provide the foundation for the development of particular Canada-US CBRs Rosenau In the construction of regional self identification, public and private actors, NGOs and communities generate regional ideological platforms based on the recognition of regional interdependencies and common problems to provide political legitimacy and orientation to cross-border regionalism.
Over time, relations and coalitions between loosely-linked networks may become increasingly institutionalized and embedded as structures of regional governance Blatter ; Helco However, the interrelation of these dimensions is influenced by national institutions, incentives and disincentives. Success was achieved through the existence of workable ideas and reframing issues to incorporate diverse interests within new problem definitions; ongoing coalition building, lobbying and interaction; and, the availability of institutional channels for decision-making and directing resources Clarke Implications of Canada-US CBRs — The emergence and growing significance of Canada-US CBRs as governance spaces — combined with the emergence of networks of regional actors and institutions that possess strategic resources and varying degrees of authority — brings both opportunities and challenges.
With the changing functions of international boundaries in the context of the a more open, globalized and high-tech economy, the regionalization of decision-making and deepening of Canada-US CBRs can have positive effects in terms of reducing conflict, ensuring continuity, facilitating interaction, developing regional capacity, building social capital and establishing long-term cross-border relationships to attain higher levels of prosperity and quality of life Clement ; PRI Indeed, IMTC demonstrates the capacity of CBRs to transform regions into competitive global economic hubs of innovation attractive to foreign investment Blatter Therefore, instead of undermining state authority, the analysis speaks to the potential of CBRs to complement national policies by encouraging cross-border cooperation, enhancing the relevance and effectiveness of policy making and implementation, as well as increasing the participatory quality of governance Clarke ; Deeg et al.
The democratic nature and legitimacy of regional institutions are often called into question — e. Moreover, autonomous self-governing networks of actors that control strategic resources to varying degrees raise further issues of accountability, as governments may no longer have the capacity to get things done without working with other actors Ibid. Given the institutional environment within which they are embedded, Canada-US CBRs confront severe issues of fragmentation and lack of coordination.
While such governance dilemmas are familiar at every scale, when problems requiring cooperation spill across borders, governance becomes increasingly problematic Clarke Consequently, cross-border linkages are likely to be functional, pragmatic, informal, and sectoral. In Cascadia, the lack of sub-national jurisdictional authority for redistribution, limiting federal structures, absence of political incentives to promote long-term CBR growth, and constraining relationships between the executive and legislature have come to hinder CBR integration and regional governance capacity.
CBRs fuel North American integration and have the potential to be important global actors. Although many interests would gain from greater transnational coordination of Canada-US CBRs, and although market ties reaching across the Canada-US borders are vibrant Canada-US CBRs continue to be frustrated and fragmented by legal and fiscal constraints that generate institutional disincentives for cooperation Clarke ; Artibise Given the limited empirical and analytical attention paid to Canada-US CBRs, more qualitative analysis — including Canada-US and international policy innovations and best-practices and statistical data collection pertaining to north-south linkages — is required to provide a more accurate and detailed picture of these regions, to further demonstrate their socio-economic significance as global economic hubs, and to foster effective, strategic and enabling policies.
As the existence of CBRs requires new ways of thinking about policies and policy development, according to the PRI integrating a cross-border regional lens and concepts into national strategies would enhance national decisions by providing regional perspectives on national policies. Ultimately, by developing coordinated bi-national spatial policies and initiatives and reducing regulatory differences, the national governments of Canada and the US would support competitiveness and prosperity, industrial cluster coordination and CBR global production platforms; facilitate regional development by enabling actors and sectors to effectively address common regional challenges; and, bolster Canada-US relations through innovation, pre-empting bi-national disputes, and securing a stronger voice for cross-border regional issues in the national capitals Ibid: This necessitates that national governments engage sub-national governments and partners in more participatory and effective policy making PRI Briefing 7.
The recommendations advocate an awareness of the importance of CBRs through integrating a regional lens into policy making and developing national incentive structures to build regional capacity. Thus, as neighboring and nearby provinces and states become more interdependent, there is a need to ensure that political structures respond to economic realities on the ground in order to address joint problems more effectively, harness the enormous transformational potential of Canada-US CBRs, and promote globally competitive cross-border activities Blank et al.
Informed by the global governance perspective and utilizing a three-pronged analytic framework, this essay explored the internal, interrelational and ideational dimensions and forces shaping the Cascadia CBR in order to provide useful insights into the nature, implications and future prospects of Canada-US CBRs.
Subsequent to situating the study within global transformations, the analysis provided a brief overview of the literature on borders and networks and defined CBRs in material and imagined terms, as involving more or less institutionalized collaboration between contiguous sub-national authorities that possess varying degrees of homogeneous features and functional interdependence across national borders.
As the Cascadia CBR was found to be the most developed CBR overall — with evidence of ongoing cross-border efforts to enhance regional governance capacities amidst growing self-consciousness — a comprehensive analysis of Cascadia utilizing the three-pronged analytic framework was conducted, with particular attention to Cascadia transportation governance. Overcoming limitations to growth and harnessing the advantages afforded by CBRs requires that national policy makers recognize the growing importance of Canada-US CBRs as engines of economic growth, integration, and competitiveness; incorporate a sub-regional lens in the development of long-term strategies; and, engage bi-nationally and cross-sectorally to provide incentives for CBR growth to address joint problems more effectively and promote globally competitive cross-border activities.
Methodologically, the analysis of the Cascadia CBR would have benefited from a more rigorous empirical assessment, which time, space and data availability prevented.
The analysis would also have benefited from in-depth discussions of how cross-border regional, networks, regimes and coalitions can strategically manoeuvre to gain national attention, and of the PNWER as the most sophisticated Canada-US CBR institution. Moreover, the EU, which has the most highly developed CBR spatial policy in the world, has not been adequately addressed.
Works of other scholars in this field may be able to address these issues that time and space prevented. Alper, D. Alper D. Anderson B. Anderson, J. Anderson , J. Anderson , M. London: Pinter.
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