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It is not based on absolute poverty , a condition where one cannot meet a necessary level to maintain basic living standards. Rather, relative deprivation enforces the idea that even if a person is financially stable, he or she can still feel relatively deprived. In criminology, the theory of relative deprivation explains that people who feel jealous and discontent of others might turn to crime to acquire the things that they can not afford.

Rural criminology is the study of crime trends outside of metropolitan and suburban areas. Rural criminologists have used social disorganization and routine activity theories. The FBI Uniform Crime Report shows that rural communities have significantly different crime trends as opposed to metropolitan and suburban areas.

The crime in rural communities consists predominantly of narcotic related crimes such as the production, use, and trafficking of narcotics. Social disorganization theory is used to examine the trends involving narcotics. Routine activity theory is used to examine all low level street crimes such as theft.

Public criminology is a discipline within criminology. Public Criminology, a concept closely tied with "public sociology", argues that the energies of criminologists should be directed towards "conducting and disseminating research on crime, law, and deviance in dialogue with affected communities. Public criminology attempts to debunk myths in criminology. Both the positivist and classical schools take a consensus view of crime: that a crime is an act that violates the basic values and beliefs of society.

Those values and beliefs are manifested as laws that society agrees upon.

Critical Voices in Criminology (Critical Perspectives on Crime and Inequality)

However, there are two types of laws:. Therefore, definitions of crimes will vary from place to place, in accordance to the cultural norms and mores, but may be broadly classified as a blue-collar crime , corporate crime , organized crime , political crime , public order crime , state crime , state-corporate crime , and white-collar crime. Homicide is the killing of another individual.

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Homicide can be broken up into many degrees and classifications. Murder is a specific classification of homicide. Specific legal definitions of homicide can vary from state to state, or country to country. However, there are still three basic categories of homicide: justifiable, excusable, and criminal.

There are three general classifications and rankings of murder. The first is first-degree murder, which is committed with premeditation and deliberation, meaning that the offender thought about and planned. Second-degree murder refers to a murder that is not premeditated or deliberated.

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Felony murder refers to a murder that occurs in correspondence with another felony, such as a robbery. Manslaughter refers to a murder where there was no deliberation, premeditation, or malice involved in the act. This category of homicide can be broken into two subsets. Voluntary manslaughter, sometimes referred to as a crime of passion, is murder based on immediate impulse in a moment of passion or emotion. Involuntary manslaughter refers to the murder of someone due to an offender's reckless behavior, such as drunk driving.


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Expressive homicide refers to murder that are unplanned and come from fits of rage or emotion. Instrumental homicide refers to murders that are used as a means to an end or are conducted to reach a goal. An example would be murder during a robbery. Multicides, or the murder of multiple people, can be broken down into three different classifications: mass murder, spree murder, and serial murder. Domestic violence usually occurs between a pair or partner of people, in the form of either familial violence or Intimate Partner Violence IPV.

It can range across any type of violence, whether it's physical, financial, emotional, sexual, or verbal. Recording domestic violence is usually dependent on victim reporting, therefore, statistics and numbers are usually an underestimate of reality. Victims can report occurrences reporting systems, which show less accurate numbers, or surveying systems, which show more accurate numbers, although still not exact. Uniform Crime Reports are dependent on victims reporting to the police.

This survey system interviews household members age 12 and above about domestic violence of all kinds. This is a survey system through the Center for Disease Control. Members are 18 and older and are asked specific questions about their experiences and are not questioned as to who initiated altercations.

Stalking involves "repeated visual or physical proximity, non-consensual communication, threats, or a combination thereof" that are repeated on at least two occasions.

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There are seven specific tactics used by stalkers:. Rape and sexual assault are forced sexual action or coercion of sexual action onto a non-consenting or coerced person. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Criminology journal. For the Raekwon song, see Criminology song.

Types of crime. Chicago school Classical school Conflict criminology Critical criminology Environmental criminology Feminist school Integrative criminology Italian school Left realism Marxist criminology Neo-classical school Positivist school Postmodernist school Right realism. Index Journals Organizations People. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Strain theory sociology.

Main article: Subcultural theory.

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Main article: Social network analysis criminology. Main article: Symbolic interactionism. Main article: Labeling theory. Main article: Rational choice theory criminology. Main article: Routine activity theory. Main article: Marxist criminology. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Critical Voices in Criminology by David Christopher Powell | Waterstones

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Index of criminology articles. Sociology portal Criminal justice portal. British Journal of Criminology. The Balance Careers. Retrieved 30 April On Crimes and Punishments, and Other Writings. Translated by Richard Davies.

Cambridge University Press. Northamptonshire UK , 5 June Mayo Clinic.